Are Non-Compete Agreements Binding on Independent Contractors?
Most people think of non-compete agreements as a contract between an employer and an employee. However, this is not the only relationship where covenants not to compete may be valid. There are a number of other relationships in which courts have enforced non-compete agreements, including non-compete agreements between a business and an independent contractor and non-compete agreements between a buyer and seller of a business. Covenants not to compete may be included in or ancillary to a variety of business contracts, such as affiliate agreements and joint marketing agreements.
One of the most common questions is whether a business can require a “1099” independent contractor to execute a non-compete, and if so, whether the agreement is enforceable as to the independent contractor.
As noted in my recent blog post regarding the general enforceability of non-compete agreements, the law governing non-compete agreements is state specific. In Tennessee, the Court of Appeals has determined that covenants not to compete may be applicable to the independent contractor relationship. Baker v. Hooper, 1998 WL 608285 (Tenn. Ct. App. 1998). Courts in other states have reached the same conclusion. In the independent contractor context, non-compete agreements will generally be treated in the same fashion as employer/employee agreements. The U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee explained the law, as follows:
Although these provisions arise outside the employment context, and are entered into between companies with relatively more bargaining power than the average employee, they are still restraints on trade, and the Court concludes that Tennessee courts, if called upon to consider these provisions, would view them in essentially the same light it views non-competes in the employment context.
As such, the provisions are enforceable under Tennessee law only if they are reasonable under the circumstances. Tennessee courts have instructed that the factors to be considered in assessing reasonableness include whether the covenant not to compete seeks to protect a legitimate business interest, the economic hardship imposed on the restricted party, and whether such a covenant would be inimical to the public interest.
Affinion Benefits Grp., LLC v. Econ-O-Check Corp., 784 F.Supp.2d 855, 866 (M.D. Tenn. 2011)
For a general discussion of the factors courts in Tennessee consider when determining the reasonableness of non-compete agreements, see my recent article on the subject. In the independent contractor setting, courts will likely place an added emphasis on whether there is a legitimate protectable business interest under the circumstances of the case. The cases in Tennessee emphasize that there is no legitimate interest in protection from competition, only from unfair competition. In making this determination, a business must show the presence of special facts above and beyond ordinary competition that would give the independent contractor an unfair advantage when competing with the business. Such facts might include whether the independent contractor had access to confidential or proprietary information, such as business secrets, confidential pricing information and confidential customer lists. Unfortunately, there is no simple rule to easily determine whether or not an independent contractor non-compete agreement is reasonable and enforceable; it is a highly fact-driven analysis and the determination will depend on the unique circumstances of each case.
Do you have questions or concerns regarding a non-compete agreement? Contact the Business Litigation & Dispute Resolution Attorneys at Thompson Burton PLLC, who are regularly called upon to prepare, review, negotiate, and litigate non-compete agreements on behalf of businesses and individuals.