Non-Competes in Network Marketing: The controversy continues

    Kevin Thompson is an MLM attorney, proud husband, father of four and a founding member of Thompson Burton PLLC. Named as one of the top 25 most influential people in direct sales, Kevin Thompson has extensive experience to help entrepreneurs launch their businesses on secure legal footing. Recently featured on Bloomberg TV and several national publications, Thompson is a thought-leader in the industry.

    The issue of non-competes came up after Team Beachbody announced it was adding a non-compete to its policies and procedures. As reported over at Business for Home, Beachbody published the following statement:

    As we strive to make the Beachbody Coach opportunity the best it can be and to protect all of your hard work helping people and building organizations, we regularly review our policies to ensure we remain competitive and in line with other leading network marketing companies. . . Effective today, Beachbody Coaches, at any rank, may not participate as a distributor or representative with any other network marketing business while they are enrolled as a Beachbody Coach.

    This announcement sparked a firestorm online, leading many to question whether these sorts of non-competes are (a) fair, and (b) actually enforceable.

    In all likelihood, Beachbody never expected this sort of announcement to spark this debate. In reality, the majority of network marketing companies have a similar non-compete. Instead of picking on Beachbody and discussing their motivations, whether it be to stop the bleeding of exiting distributors or to “stay current with the times,” let’s shift our focus towards a discussion of the more important issues of enforceability and fairness.

    Are Non-Competes Enforceable?

    In most instances, yes. In 2013, Thompson Burton litigator, Cole Dowsley, published an article regarding the enforceability of non-competes in network marketing companies. Generally, in most states, the non-competes are enforceable against distributors (I’ll refer to distributors as “Independent Professionals” or “IPs”). In most states, non-competes are enforceable as long as they are “reasonable under the circumstances.”

    The factors to consider when measuring “reasonableness” include: whether the non-compete seeks to protect a legitimate business interest, the economic hardship imposed on the restricted party, and whether such a covenant would be contrary to the public interest. As an example, restricting a doctor from practicing medicine for a prolonged period would be contrary to public interest.

    What Do Non-Competes Look Like?

    Contrary to what most people think, not all non-competes are created equal. Some are loose, some are incredibly restrictive. Usually, they look something like this: During the term of this Agreement, any XYZ distributor must not sell, or entice others to sell, any competing products or services, including training materials, to XYZ Customers or distributors.

    The key language above: “During the term of this Agreement…” This means, after someone resigns or is terminated by the company (after the term of the agreement), they’re free to immediately join another network marketing company. In the more aggressive non-competes, as in Nerium’s policy, the non-compete survives termination (meaning the restriction extends beyond termination / resignation). In Nerium’s non-compete, it says, “For the term of this Agreement and for two (2) years after termination hereof, for any reason, Brand Partner agrees not to sell any product that [competes].” Nerium’s two-year restriction is, in my opinion, both abnormal and ridiculous. Usually, when the non-compete survives termination, it rarely extends beyond six months after resignation / termination.

    Why Do Network Marketing Companies Have Non-Competes?

    Network marketing companies typically insert non-competes in their agreements for the following reasons:

    (1) it provides a disincentive for leaders to participate in other companies;
    (2) it provides the company with leverage against a leader’s perceived bad behavior, such as recruiting from someone else’s downline;
    (3) companies argue that leaders are given proprietary information in the form of access to downline structure and contact information. In exchange for this access, the company wants to ensure the information is not used for the benefit of a competitor;
    (4) companies argue that they want to use every resource available to protect the income of downline IPs from any person that might raid the organization i.e. “Steve in the downline is no longer able to afford his car payment because his upline stole his group…it’s up to us (the company) to protect Steve.”; and
    (5) non-compete violations are generally easy to prove.

    When companies have a pattern of suing IPs, using the non-compete as the main bullet can backfire. The field, viewing their peers with sympathy, get startled, which leads to less enthusiasm, which leads to fewer sales, which leads to less money, which leads to more people leaving. Litigation against IPs rarely leads to a net-gain.

    Are Non-Competes Fair?

    Since we’ve established that non-competes are generally enforceable, it begs the following question: Are they fair? I’m not asking about the meaning of “fair” in the legal sense, I’m asking about the meaning in the right vs. wrong sense. As lawyers, we try to avoid the gooey subject of fairness. Fairness is very subjective and opinions often vary.

    With that being said, I have an opinion. The company has a strong interest in ensuring there’s stability in the downline. When an IP leaves a company, the company can and should take measures to prevent leaders from recruiting downline members. The company can accomplish this objective by way of a non-solicitation clause. The non-solicitation is another common clause in network marketing agreements. The non-solicitation clause restricts an IP’s ability from recruiting people he or she did not personally enroll. It does NOT restrict an IP’s ability to occupy positions in other companies.

    In my opinion, companies can protect their downlines without restricting peoples’ theoretical ability to derive income somewhere else. On the rare occasions where people can actually derive income from two sources, companies CAN allow it as long as the IPs successfully navigate their non-solicitation clauses. While some people find this idea of “multiple streams of income” impractical, it’s beyond the point because the non-solicitation clause serves as a check on the very behavior that leads to the disruption i.e. recruiting.

    Smart Minds Disagree

    This has been a widely debated subject for several years. And since there’s room for disagreement on both sides, there’s really no consensus on the subject. Four years ago, when we initially wrote about non-competes, I was of the opinion that non-competes would eventually fall by the wayside due to market pressures. While non-competes are enforceable, I thought that eventually networkers would start demanding their removal. But that never happened; thus, the discussion continues. I’ve seen people in our profession fall on all sides of this issue. When distributors stand up and contest these agreements, they’re rarely supported and oftentimes ridiculed. This lack of consensus creates an environment where these sorts of provisions can exist.

    Conclusion

    In my opinion, it’s a tie. The field has strong arguments in disfavor of non-competes, the companies have strong arguments in favor of them. But since we have a tie, there needs to be a tie-breaker. Of the two sides, the field is at a dramatic disadvantage to contest these clauses. In a lot of cases (not all cases), the company abuses its position to crush IPs with modest resources. These IPs are real people and any sort of termination / litigation is very unnerving and, in most cases, debilitating. Companies should wield this power very sparingly, in my view. Plus, it’s hard enough for people in the field to derive income. Since IPs are gracious enough to lend their time and energies to sell a company’s product, I believe it’s overkill for companies to restrict their long-term decisions.

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      Kevin Thompson is an MLM attorney, proud husband, father of four and a founding member of Thompson Burton PLLC. Named as one of the top 25 most influential people in direct sales, Kevin Thompson has extensive experience to help entrepreneurs launch their businesses on secure legal footing. Recently featured on Bloomberg TV and several national publications, Thompson is a thought-leader in the industry.

      • Well thought out article that addresses a very real issue among direct sellers that has become more complicated because of social media. Cross recruiting is a temptation that some can’t resist since it is so easy to do online, as is “jumping ship” to opportunities they may not have ever known existed if not for social media. I would love to see an example of what you would consider an effective non-solicitation clause to contrast with the non-competes that are common? Thanks for always being a voice of reason out there!

        • Anne Krudup Perez

          My motto on that cross recruiting situation is this. IF someone is 1000% grounded and happy where they are, they can’t be swayed. Thus I believe even that rule out to be deleted, null and void. Simply because we should NOT have those rules to tell us how to build our business. just my thoughts.

      • Anne Krudup Perez

        I love the points in this article. I sure we could change compliance rules for all companies. NO company should have a right to tell us we can or can’t share more than one business on our FB personal wall. They do not OWN that social platform thus they should have NO Rights to tell us we can’t share more than one especially if it’s NO conflict of interest to the other company. ON top of that. we chose entrepreneurship to so we didn’t’ have someone telling us how to work, when to work and how to build our business. For a company to say we can’t host a party for someone else’s DS company in our own home, has been going way to far.. Overstepping bounds of our freedom to live and breath. we the people should have the right to build what we wish when and where. Common sense, where has it gone. I’d be embarrassed and ashamed if I were one of the companies preying on the little people just trying to make their dreams come to life or trying ot make the cash they need to survive, but taking their rights away..

        • Kevin Thompson

          I appreciate your feedback, Anne. I think people like yourself are growing in numbers.

        • Michael McVige

          Anne, there are so many statements that you made that I just don’t agree with, but do not want to take the time to address them all. First of all, my wife and I are extremely successful network marketers (top 1%). We teach our team against your thought process, of thinking you can or should work more than one mlm at a time. ALL of the best teachers in our industry teach against it … so who are you listening to? In other words, the old saying still stands true, ” you cannot chase two rabbits at one time, you’ll catch neither”. Success requires your undivided focus and energy. Henry Ford while inventing the Ford automobile, wasn’t juggling the creation of multiple other companies at the same time. Last I heard they don’t sell hamburgers, they leave that to McDonald’s and McDonald’s leave the automobile business you Ford. Do you understand? So, it’s not really about “Freedom” at all. Each company has a right to protect itself, in order to stay in business. The article outlined some very legitimate reasons why a company would have such a clause (which is common place in business). There is protection not only for the company, but for you as well as other members. In general, to have “freedom”, we must have laws. You want “freedom” to do whatever you want, not going to happen. What about the stop sign? … where is your freedom. In closing, find a mlm you believe in, believe in it, put your muscle into it and be successful and you won’t need to worry about the “clause”.

      • Joe Gonzales

        Always appreciate your insight and you are top notch. Here’s my take on this Kevin.

        A non-compete in a non-competitive industry seems totally unreasonable. I was fired by Beachbody because they changed their policy effective 3/15. Prior to, we were allowed to do another non-competitive business, so long as we didn’t use Social Media (a tough restriction as well). While Beachbody’s business and our business was falling (ours fell by 60% and represented our full time income), how are we not supposed to pursue another form of income? As of 3/15, BB said that you could no longer do even a non-competing business industry.

        How can it compete if nobody was leaving BB and nobody was stopping their orders of their products? Nobody was hurt. Nothing had changed. Not one business volume point was lost until they started firing people or backlash from uplines who force people to quit. That’s when people cancel their orders.

        It’s a self-destructive clause.

        A non-compete is used when an employee is so critical to the operations, that the company cannot survive if that person were to go out an compete against the old company (say when somebody buys a business).

        You mean to tell me that I or anyone would be responsible for taking down a billion dollar company as one distributor out of 400,000 ??

        A real estate brokerage can tell an agent that they cannot sell houses for another broker. But they cannot tell the Agent that they can’t make income elsewhere as an independent contractor.

        Because we successfully built another business, BB decided to change the rules after the fact, and they used that NEW clause to fire us. Where in the business world would a partnership agreement be allowed to change without compensating the partner for the previous business arrangement and what had been built?

        The industry will not gain in professionalism until the eliminate the things that actually make people think that it’s a pyramid. If it can’t survive without people being controlled and legitimately buying products because they want to be there, then it has to be a pyramid.

        • Kevin Thompson

          I appreciate your thoughts on this, Joe. The BB non-compete is interesting. They’re based out of California. I’m not sure how they intend on enforcing their non-compete when NCs are generally unenforceable in that state. If someone wanted to challenge them on it, they would probably lose.

      • Rex Powers

        This industry has been totally oblivious to the need for top down AND BOTTOM UP enforceable compliance and now we see this ever changing evolution to “social selling” where any one can set up a online marketplace and sell multiple lines thru any number of distribution platforms (SUCH AS AMAZON)…

        I love the Direct Selling Industry but the time has come for the industry to wake the hell up and realize that the consumers who support these new “marketplaces” are the ones MAKING THE RULES….

        EVOLUTION is INEVITABLE and so is the ALTERNATIVE….EXTINCTION!

        This is a industry that is well know for attracting individuals who are EXPERTS at gaming the VERY systems they are promoting. Direct Selling is LONG OVERDUE for a TOTAL OVERHAUL nut if anyone thinks a Non Complete will have ANY REAL IMPACT ON THESE “PLAYERS” …..YOU ARE WRONG!

      • Six

        Kevin, the BB non compete is “any multi level” company. That seems to be vague, unnecessary, and non enforceable. The question I have is this: I NEVER signed the new policies. Does it still apply? And under what conditions can a company change the policies and apply them unilaterally without the knowledge of the other party? Also, the term INDEPENDENT COACH implies rights to build other income streams.

      • Julie

        I happened to sign up for one of these MLM companies just for personal use (I don’t plan on selling). I was unaware of the non-compete clause in the agreement. However, I have my own small business ( already established prior to becoming a member) although I don’t believe we are in direct competition, I’m wondering if this applies to me? The verbiage seems pretty broad. I certainly did not intend on joining this for any other reason but to use the products. I live in NY.